College: Education and Allied Health Professions
Program Director: Carmen Russell
The Speech-Language Pathology master's program is part of the Department of Communication Disorders and Deaf Education at Fontbonne University. Each year, SLP graduate students are required to make a poster or thesis presentation on a topic of their choice, usually at the annual convention of the Missouri Speech-Language Hearing Association. Materials from those presentations are archived here.
Eleanor Krobath and Katelynn Morris
“Stroke and aphasia can negatively affect a person’s ability to maintain healthy social relationships, both within the family and also with friends and the wider network” (Fotiadou et al., 2014). However, very few studies explicitly target skills needed for successful dating among clients with aphasia. Survey data was collected from adults with chronic aphasia to determine perceived barriers, confidence, fear, and success associated with dating, and previous experience in speech therapy. This session will include a literature review related to aspects of communication needed for successful dating, aphasia-related deficits, and the potential impact on the dating process. Participant responses will be analyzed and presented. Additionally, goals, target selection, and other considerations for intervention will be discussed.
The use of a coaching model, grounded in the adult learning theory, can create a positive parent-professional relationship in an early intervention setting. The Early Childhood Coaching Handbook (Rush and Sheldon, 2019) states “coaching is an adult learning strategy in which the coach promotes the learner’s ability to reflect on his or her actions as a means to determine the effectiveness of an action or practice and develop a plan for refinement and use of the action in immediate and future situations” (p.8). Literature reviews and parent/caregiver and professional perspectives who engage in coaching relationships were pulled from the extant literature to inform this poster. Early career professionals and seasoned professionals are reminded of the importance and process of creating a solid parent-professional partnership to reach families desired outcomes through early intervention.
During the year 2020, a worldwide quarantine was set in place as a preventative strategy to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the Michigan Health Lab in June of 2020, 56% of people over the age of 50 said they sometimes or often felt isolated from others. In comparison, this statistic increased by over 100% from the original 27% reported back in 2018 (Gavin, 2020). Social isolation (SI) has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans and animals for more than a quarter century (Cacioppo et al., 2014). Neuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to modify, change, and adapt both structure and function throughout life and in response to experience (Voss et al, 2017). This presentation reviews social isolation and its impact on neuroplasticity in adults post-neurological injury. This poster also reviews strategies that can be incorporated to maintain neuroplasticity during social isolation.
There is a higher prevalence of voice disorders in cheerleaders in comparison to their peers. Consistent strain of the vocal folds over time has led to the concern of vocal abuse in young cheerleaders. Long term effects of vocal abuse include structural effects to the vocal folds. If these structural effects occur, cheerleaders may experience distorted vocal quality, pitch, volume, and resonance in addition to pain and irritability. The purpose of this poster is to bring awareness to the prevalence of voice disorders in cheerleaders. The importance of implementing a vocal hygiene program is also discussed. Supplemental tools to implement a vocal hygiene program are provided. This poster will also provide collaborative methods with other professionals. Vocal abuse is one of many ways a person can cause a voice disorder. Too much shouting and talking is just one way a person can abuse their voice. Considering cheerleading involves leading the crowd by yelling, cheerleaders are at a high risk of vocal abuse. There are approximately 3 million cheerleaders in the United States alone. Because cheerleading is such a popular activity, vocal hygiene programs need to be implemented into everyday practice. If they are not implemented, an epidemic of voice disorders could become present in our society. Implementing preventative measures will decrease the case load of speech-language pathologists in the future. The success of implementing a vocal hygiene program into cheerleading teams will be dependent on the collaboration and consistency of support staff including; athletic directors, athletic trainers, coaches, athletes, and parents.
This session provides an overview of the use, benefit, and implementation of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) with children who present with challenging behaviors. The basic process of when to implement AAC will be discussed. There will be a brief review of literature regarding the benefit of AAC on students with challenging behaviors. Application of this knowledge in practice will also be discussed.
This poster aims to examine why speech therapists use non-words (NWs) to treat speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children. The science behind lexical and phonological learning can play a role in using non-words in therapy. Both real and non-words have been used to treat speech sound disorders. Using real words in treatment can help the child with sound generalizations, while using non-words, the child focuses exclusively on the words' articulation and phonological forms. Knowledge of what non-words, phonological, and lexical representations are willing better help understand the benefits of using non-words in therapy sessions.
The Effect of the Use of Enhanced Milieu Teaching on the Expressive Language Skills of Young Children with Autism
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the use of Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) on the expressive language skills of young children diagnosed as having autism. Findings of the literature indicate an increase in expressive language in multiple areas. Further research is necessary due to a variety of implications.
Approximately 5-10% of individuals are born with ankyloglossia, also known as ‘tongue-tie’. Frenectomy, is a common treatment for ankyloglossia by un-attaching part of the frenulum. Current research is based on the initial impact of infant ankyloglossia as it pertains to infant feeding and swallowing. There is limited evidence to inform decisions about when or if mild-moderate ankyloglossia will have an impact on an individual’s speech later in life. This lack of evidence has led to controversy surrounding infant versus adolescent frenotomies and their utility for preventing speech impairment. Further research is necessary to determine whether a frenectomy as a child prevents articulation errors as an adolescent. This presentation will review the different types of frenectomies, the disadvantages and advantages of receiving one, and why one might consider their child receiving one.
Research on quality of life for People with Aphasia (PWA) post-stroke. Benefits of Life Participation Approach to Aphasia (LPAA).
Maggie O’Brien O’Brien
The rise of the neurodiversity movement has started to question social communication and pragmatic therapy as we know it today. This movement started in the 1990s when Autistic people were able to connect and share ideas in online forums. These groups went on to create a social-justice movement for Autistic self-advocacy along with their own Autistic culture. This community has pointed out that some forms of pragmatic therapy can promote masking.
Enhancing Expressive Language Skills in Children Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing with Alternative Augmentative Communication
Deaf and hard of hearing children develop vocabulary slowly and struggle with abstract words, functional words, and multiple meanings. According to Scott and Dostal (2019) a deprivation of language in the early years may be a part of the puzzle for difficulties deaf and hard of hearing children encounter, rather than the hearing loss itself. Research points towards the use of American Sign Language (ASL) as a reliable treatment for deafness and hearing loss but is often overlooked due to many deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children being born to hearing parents (Grether et al., 2019:Lederberg, et al., 2013; Meinzen-Derr et al., 2021). Some other forms of treatment include simultaneous communication and spoken language, which have fewer positive outcomes than those who are taught ASL exclusively (Lederberg et al., 2013) Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) has been widely used for closing the language gap in students who have complex learning disabilities. Researchers such as Meinzen-Derr (2019) have introduced an innovative technology assisted therapy intervention otherwise known as Technology Assisted Language Intervention (TALI) for DHH children and has seen promising results. AAC applications mostly used simplistic communication to convey meaning and assess understanding. TALI or AAC provides support for abstract linguistic concepts such as consistent models for verbalizations and recognition memory and can provide multisensory, visual, and auditory input (Drager et al., 2010). These components are important for language learning and learning abstract language concepts in environments that are verbal language dominant.
This presentation aims to describe the relationship between yoga/meditation and aphasia, lists considerations for implementation of yoga/meditation for people with aphasia, and identifies potential benefits of yoga/meditation for people with aphasia.
The act of smoking electronic cigarettes, known as “vaping”, has increased in popularity in recent years. According to the FDA, 1 in 10, more than 2.5 million, U.S high school and middle school students have reported using e-cigarettes in 2022. In 2018, an estimated 8.1 million U.S adults reported using e-cigarettes (Villarroel et al, CDC). Vaping is defined as “inhaling a smoke-free aerosol through a mouthpiece, which is produced through the heating of a liquid such as glycol or glycerin in an electronic device” (Lyzwinski et al., 2022). Vaping was originally marketed as a safer alternative to traditional smoking; however, research proving potential benefits is lacking (Laucks & Salzman, 2020). In recent years, more research is available discussing the negative effects vaping has on the respiratory system, oral health, and mental health. This presentation will discuss research showing the effects vaping nicotine has on laryngeal, respiratory, and oral health in adolescents and adults who vape nicotine. This presentation will also discuss implications vaping nicotine may have on vocal quality. Because research in this topic is limited, this presentation aims to educate participants on what information is available, as well as why more research should be conducted.
By participating in this presentation:
• Participants will be able to list 3 possible effects vaping nicotine has on laryngeal health.
• Participants will be able to summarize the incidence among the different populations who vape nicotine.
• Participants will be able to explain why more research on this topic needs to be conducted in this field.
Through everyday interactions with their caregivers, most infants readily acquire early communication that leads to the development of listening and spoken language. However, a child's cognitive abilities may predict their language acquisition trajectory and the complexity of language they ultimately achieve. This poster describes the cognitive skills which are known predictors of language acquisition. Furthermore, this poster offers suggested intervention activities which caregivers and professionals can utilize to enhance the development of language in young children.
Aphasia is a complex language disorder that can vary in severity dependent upon the amount of damage in specific areas of the brain responsible for language expression and comprehension. Typically, the extent of the disorder, and prediction for successful treatment is assessed and confirmed by a set of comprehensive language tests conducted by a speech-language pathologist. The Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) is commonly used to assess the linguistic and non-linguistic skills most frequently affected by aphasia. A score of 93.8 or above distinguishes an individual as normal or non-aphasic; however, many people with aphasia score above this cut-off and still report life activity and participation difficulties.
Interprofessional collaboration is essential to serve and maximize outcomes for students who are deaf and hard of hearing. Speech-language pathologists, audiologists, otolaryngologists, and educators are among the many professionals that serve deaf and hard of hearing students. Although each of these professionals serve this population, interprofessional collaboration is often minimal and lacking. Strategies to implement successful interprofessional collaboration will be identified, as well as why interprofessional collaboration for the deaf and hard of hearing population is crucial. The impact of interprofessional collaboration on outcomes for deaf and hard of hearing students will also be discussed.
The elderly population and medically compromised patients are at greater risk for the development of aspiration pneumonia. This poster intends to examine the relationships between oral dysbiosis and lung pathogenesis. The basic dental science of how oral pathogens invade the oral cavity will be explained. The link between oral disease and aspiration pneumonia will be discussed. Attention to oral health management will also be applied.
For children who are deaf/hard of hearing (DHH) to learn to listen and talk, they need consistent, optimal access to sound (LSL, 2022). This is achieved using properly fit hearing technology (CIs, HAs, etc.). It has been found that individuals of lower socio-economic status (SES) have less access to hearing technology, less knowledge about the device use, and subsequently poorer listening/spoken language outcomes than their more affluent counterparts. Speech-language pathologists who serve these children and families must learn the specific needs of each client and their family for the most effective outcome. Regardless of socioeconomic status or background, parents play a major role in the development of their children. For children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), parent involvement is vital to ensure children consistently use their hearing technology in order to develop listening and spoken language skills. It is important that practitioners support low SES parents by using appropriate language, provide models of device use, and emphasize the importance of wearing the hearing device in all settings. Thus, families from low SES backgrounds can benefit from the support of practitioners, including speech language pathologists (SLPs), who provide information and resources to achieve consistent device use.
According to the CDC, “diabetes is a chronic health condition that affects the way your body turns food into energy”. More than 37 million adults in the United States have diabetes which is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. With diabetes affecting such a large portion of the population, what do speech-language pathologists need to know about how blood sugar affects speech and language in various types of individuals? This literature review explores the effects of language development later in the life of babies born to mothers with diabetes. The effects that diabetes has on adults’ ability to process language will also be identified. The roles of speech-language pathologists in the care of diabetic patients will be explored, and learners will be provided with information about how to best provide care for their diabetic patients. Speech-language pathologists play a vital role in helping their clients affected by diabetes across the lifespan with expressive and receptive language.
Speech-Language Pathologists’ Experience with Augmentative and Alternative Communication in the Public-School Early Childhood Setting
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices are used to facilitate communication in individuals with speech and/or language deficits. By facilitating receptive and expressive language, it provides a means of communication in which a child can communicate and be understood by others. AAC is growing among the early childhood setting as research has shown that earlier access to AAC can improve communication skills even at an early age (Branson & Demchak, 2009). Speech-language pathologists (SLP) play a substantial role in AAC intervention among preschoolers. They are responsible for conducting the evaluation, selecting the appropriate AAC method, providing intervention, communicating with and educating the family and other professionals, and ensuring the child has a naturalistic environment to use AAC to communicate (Singh, Diong & Kamal, 2020). As AAC intervention is growing, it is important to further research AAC practices directly from SLPs themselves.
Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion is a laryngeal disorder where sudden, inappropriate adduction of the true vocal folds during inspiration causes dyspnea. Due to the respiratory distress found with this disorder, it is often misdiagnosed for asthma and a correct diagnosis is often not made until after the patient has undergone costly office visits, procedures, and pharmaceutical interventions (Ibrahim et. al, 2007). It may take years of inappropriate treatment with no benefit to receive a correct diagnosis for this disorder. Though the exact cause of PVFM is idiopathic, four main pathogenetic mechanisms have been suggested in the literature: laryngeal hypersensitivity, altered autonomic balance, direct stimulation of the sensory nerve endings in the upper or lower respiratory tract, and hyperventilation (Patel et. al, 2015). The aim of this poster presentation is to provide education on how to identify traits of PVFM differentially from asthma, to learn the triggers and causes of this disorder, and how to manage the symptoms of PVFM.
Effective communication allows us to express wants and needs, gain information about the world around us, build relationships, and take part in social activities. We often use speech and language to communicate although, people with complex communication needs may use Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC). AAC allows users to communicate with the many people in their lives (family members, teachers, peers, etc.). Whether in the classroom or out in the community, it is important to understand what AAC is and how it is used. Additionally, it is important to understand how to support users.