All Theses, Dissertations, and Capstone Projects

Year of Award



Master of Business Administration (MBA)


College of Business & Professional Studies

Degree Program



Business Administration


Human Resources, Motivation, Managing, Consistency Theory, Two-Factor Theory, Expectancy Theory, Stress


The nature of motivation is concerned with the "why" of human behavior, It can be defined as the inner state that energizes, channels and sustain human behaviors. Motivation is synonymous with the term intervening variable, a psychological process not directly observable but is inferred from human behavior. We can only measure indication of motivation not motivation itself, Motivation is complicated by the fact that: 1. Person motivation change over time, 2. The environment, which influences motives also changes.

Management considers the relationship between employee motivation and performance especially in high stress environments an important aspect of Human Resources. There are countless motivational theories and theorist, all of which can be applied in a work environment. Therefore only a select few of special interest have been chosen for my thesis research. They are all classified as Rational-Conscious Theories and Content Need Theories, The three theories of concern are the Consistency Theory associated with Abraham Korman, the Two-Factor theory associated with Frederick Herzbergs; and the Expectancy Theory associated with Victor Vroom. The three goals indicate behavior is goal directed.

Abraham Korman's Consistency Theory stress the idea that the basic motive for all acts is reinforcement of the self image, If people are going to be successful they have to achieve task of job, be creative and adapt-to changing environment; keep interpersonal conflict under reasonable control.

Frederick Herzberg Two Factor Theory examines job conditions which cause employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction Motivational factors such as recognition lead to job satisfaction. Reduced salary cause employees to become dissatisfied.

Victor Vroom Expectancy Theory explains that a certain behavior is selected among alternatives because it is perceived to be most likely capable of achieving a desired goal, Decisions are made based on the perception of the relationship between performance and rewards.

Regardless of how motivated employee get, there is still a degree of stress that incorporates itself into the work environment, which can potentially reduce performance. It may also increase job performance while at the same sacrificing the wellness of employees. In today's work environment some people are faced with the stress and pressures that evolve from the daily grind, Some people spend the majority of their adult life working under stress. Many employees do not realize what they are experiencing is stress, since it affects everyone differently.

Stress can affect individuals in a variety of ways, Stress often evokes physical, mental and emotional reactions to situations that cause fear, uncertainty, danger, excitement, irritation, confusion or change. Some individuals are less vulnerable than others to these emotions, but no one is immune, Some psychiatrists as well ,as physicians agree that "eighty percent of all employee emotional problems are stress related.

Stress is an inevitable and natural consequence of work, There is no way to avoid it, only ways to cope with it. Supporting research and criticism of the motivational theories, their applicability to group of stressed employees and their implication for managers are included.

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