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Download Sections 1-6 General R Information.pdf (337 KB)

Download Sections 7-9 Graphs and Summary Statistics.pdf (222 KB)

Download Sections 10-14 Distributions and Critical Values.pdf (389 KB)

Download Sections 15-28 Parametric Methods.pdf (455 KB)

Download Sections 29-38 Non-Parametric Methods.pdf (526 KB)

Download Sections 39-40 Follow-Up Comparisons.pdf (230 KB)

Download Sections 41-45 Effect Sizes.pdf (375 KB)

Download Reference Tables and Bibliography.pdf (313 KB)

Download Notes on Data Sources.pdf (98 KB)

Download Data Files (contains 16 .txt files).zip (10 KB)


This “How To….” Manual is intended to assist the new user in implementing standard statistical methods, both parametric and non-parametric, using R statistical software. Its focus is on R implementation, not statistical theory. It includes the R commands, with examples, for the following: proportion tests, t-tests, ANOVA, variance tests, several correlation measures and regression models, Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, chi-squared tests, multiple pairwise comparisons and effect sizes. Basic graphical methods are also illustrated.

[See note on 2024 update below.]

Publication Date



Fontbonne University


St Louis, MO


Proportion Tests in R, T-Tests in R, ANOVA in R, Variance Tests in R, Correlation in R, Simple Regression in R, Multiple Regression in R, Binary Logistic Regression in R, Mann-Whitney Tests in R, Wilcoxon Tests in R, Kruskal-Wallis Tests in R, Chi-Squared Tests in R, Pairwise Comparisons in R, Effect Sizes in R, Basic Graphs in R, Open-Source Software


Applied Statistics | Statistical Methodology | Statistics and Probability


Math and Computer Science


A Note on Packages (March 2024)

This text was prepared using version 3.6.0 of R and packages that were available under that version. The R project has recently done a major upgrade to version 4.0, and some of the packages available have changed. Most of what is in this R Manual should still work but some functionality may not be available as stated, especially when it involves installing packages from the R archives. The author is in the process of checking on this and will be updating the text as needed. Feel free to use the text but be advised of the potential for difficulties with packages.

Data Files

The data files included here all have a file extension of: .txt

R works with data files that have been created in a text editor, and that is the reason for the specific extension. These were created in Notepad. If you want to open the files outside of R for any reason, such as to review them or to copy/paste their contents into a spreadsheet, you will need to use Notepad or some equivalent text editor to do that.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

A “How-To” Manual for Doing Standard Statistics in R



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