All Theses, Dissertations, and Capstone Projects

Year of Award



Master of Business Administration (MBA)


College of Business & Professional Studies

Degree Program



Business Administration


VRA, VER, Voluntary Restraint Agreement, Voluntary Export Restraints, Japan, Cars, Automobile Industry, United Auto Workers, UAW


Voluntary Restraint Agreements (V.R.A.) or Voluntary Export Restraints (V.E.R.) have been used interchangeably in this thesis. Although this phenomena was not first introduced in the automobile industry, it is there it became a common term in American export-import jargon. With the emergence of the Japanese as a formidable worldwide competitor to the U.S. in the auto industry, it was becoming very apparent in the late 1970's and early 1980's the U.S. auto industry was in economic trouble.

"Voluntary" quotas were adopted by the Japanese in 1981 to ward off a more severe threat to their export of automobiles to the U.S. - protectionist legislation.

This thesis is directed at reviewing the events leading . up to the V.E.R. and the effects it had on the auto industry - in the U.S. and the United States economy in general. In retrospect, it appears the price paid for these few years of protectionism has changed the auto industry in the U.S. forever. Arguably, it also appears the benefits from the V.E.R. are far outweighed by the disadvantages.

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